Social Issues

1930s Massive Deportation of Mexican-Americans. Could History Repeat itself?

President Donald Trump’s call for mass deportation of immigrants living in the U.S. illegally, and possibly their American-born children, bears similarities to a large-scale removal that many Mexican-American families faced 85 years ago.

During the Great Depression, counties and cities in the American Southwest and Midwest forced Mexican immigrants and their families to leave the U.S. over concerns they were taking jobs away from whites despite their legal right to stay.

The result: Around 500,000 to 1 million Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans were pushed out of the country during the 1930s repatriation, as the removal is sometimes called.

During that time, immigrants were rounded up and sent to Mexico, sometimes in public places and often without formal proceedings. Others, scared under the threat of violence, left voluntarily.

About 60 percent of those who left were American citizens, according to various studies on the 1930s repatriation. Later testimonies show families lost most of their possessions and some family members died trying to return. Neighborhoods in cities such as Houston, San Antonio and Los Angeles became empty.

A message to all Latinos from the LatinTRENDS Team:  Make absolutely sure to vote and register to vote. Let your voice be heard. Allow yourself that right, so that the ugly part of history does not repeat itself

 

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The impact of the experience on Latinos remains evident today, experts and advocates say.

“It set the tone for later deportations,” said Francisco Balderrama, a Chicano studies professor at California State University, Los Angeles.

Two weeks ago, Trump said that, if elected president, he would expand deportations and end “birthright citizenship” for children born to immigrants who are here illegally. Under his plan, American-born children of immigrants also would be deported with their parents, and Mexico would be asked to help build a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border.

“They’re illegal,” Trump said of U.S.-born children of people living in the country illegally. “You either have a country or not.”

Amid his comments on immigration, polls show negative impressions of Trump among Latinos. A Gallup poll released Aug. 24 found that Hispanics were more likely to give Trump unfavorable ratings than favorable ones by 51 percentage points.

Some immigrant advocates pointed to the removal of prominent Latino journalist Jorge Ramos from an Iowa press conference last week as a metaphor for the candidate’s desire to remove Latinos from the United States.

“Mr. Trump should heed the following warning: Our Latino and immigrant communities are not going to forget the way he has treated them,” the Washington, D.C.-based Fair Immigration Reform Movement said in a statement.

Ramos, an anchor for Univision, was escorted out by a Trump aide after Ramos, who had criticized Trump previously, tried to question Trump about his immigration plan. Trump interrupted Ramos, saying he hadn’t been called on, and ultimately told Ramos, “Go back to Univision.”

Ramos was saying, “You cannot deport 11 million people,” as he was escorted away. He was later allowed to return.

Trump has provided few details on how his proposed deportation effort would be carried out. The conservative-leaning American Action Forum concluded in a report it would cost between $400 billion to $600 billion and take 20 years to remove an estimated 11.2 million immigrants living in the country illegally.

The large-scale deportation he envisions would be impractical to enact, due to the extent to which Mexican immigrants have integrated into U.S. society, said Columbia University history professor Mae Ngai.

U.S.-born children of immigrants have been automatically considered American citizens since the adoption of the Constitution’s 14th Amendment in 1868. A Supreme Court ruling in 1898 halted previous attempts to limit the birthright of Chinese-American citizens after the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act.

The ruling upheld the clause for all U.S.-born children, Ngai said, and there have been no successful challenges to the clause since.

In the 1930s, Balderrama said, officials skirted the issue of birthright citizenship by saying they did not want to break up families.

“But they did break up families and many children never saw their parents again,” said Balderrama, co-author of a book about Mexican repatriation in the 1930s with the late historian Raymond Rodriguez, who testified before a California state committee about seeing his father for the last time at age 10, before the father left for Mexico.

That legacy lingers in songs, often played on Spanish-language radio stations, that allude to mass deportations and separation of loved ones, said Lilia Soto, an American studies professor at the University of Wyoming.

For example, the lyrics to “Ice El Hielo,” by the Los Angeles-band La Santa Cecilia, speak of a community afraid that federal agents about to arrive and launch deportations raids at any moment. The ballad “Volver, Volver,” sung by Mexican ranchera performer Vicente “Chente” Fernandez, speaks of someone vowing to return to a lover despite all obstacles.

“They’re about families being apart,” Soto said. “The lyrics are all

What You Didn’t Know about Calle 13

Calle 13 is a Puerto Rican alternative urban band consisting of stepbrothers René Pérez Joglar (lead singer, songwriter), Eduardo José Cabra Martínez (multi-instrumentalist, vocalist, beat producer) and their half-sister Ileana Cabra Joglar (backing vocals). Their stage names are Residente, Visitante and PG-13.

Calle 13 likes to blend different musical styles like reggaeton, rap and rock. While other Latino groups tend to stick to the format, Calle 13 likes to buck tradition. The group is known for using a wide range of instruments from all over the world and using provocative, tongue-in-cheek as well as socially conscientious lyrics.

Everything sounds the same on the radio…but what we are making is sincere, and I think that’s worth something.”

The band also takes on social issues facing Puerto Ricans, Latinos and people all over the world. As the frontman of the band, Residente has no problem vocalizing the group’s stance on certain topics concerning music, politics and discrimination.

The siblings are big supporters for and independent Puerto Rico, Pérez is an ally of the LGBTQ community, and the brothers go out of their way not to make music about violence, misogyny and materialism.

I want Puerto Rico to be free and independent and have just one flag. The people here don’t work the way they should, and it’s because of the comfort they are feeling from you guys, from the States. We have a very low self-esteem. We feel that we can’t do it on our own. We as a country need to feel proud about our nation.”

I want  the world to know the name Oscar López Rivera.

Fun Facts

  • The group got their name from the street they use to live on when their parents were married
  • Residente is afraid of airplanes
  • If I could have dinner with anyone, it would be with his grandmother, his great-grandmother, Roberto Clemente, and John Lennon. –Rene aka Residente
  • Visitante use to lead a ska-reggae band called Bayanga
  • Their tour band consists of 20-25 members
  • Residente would one day love to be a film director or writer
  • During sex he listens to… “No music for sex,” he said, laughing. “Naturahttps://www.latintrends.com/e-newsletter/l sounds.” -Rene aka Residente

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Relationship Trends in America!

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Relationship Trends in America!

 

  • 48% of men are most likely to fall in love at first sight than woman who rated in at 28% ( makes sense verdad?)
  • 33% more men than woman are bothered if their partners aren’t more romantic (this is surprising, isn’t it?)
  • Couples who earn $20,000 or less argue less frequently compared to those who earn $250,000 to $500,000 ( hum…)
  • 57% of those in an unhappy relationship still finds partner attractive
  • Successful marriages center their relationship with God (Amen!)
  • 33% Considered breaking-up after watching a TV show or movie (choose what you watch carefully!)

 

We would like to hear your thoughts on this matter. Feel free to share your opinion below.

Eva Longoria – “Latinos in America Must Unite”

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What do Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Ecuadorians, Colombians, and Peruvians all have in common?

The answer is simple: they are all Latino. The only thing that truly makes anyone from the above group different from each other is the cultural background associated to each group. For those who aren’t Latino may not think we are different and few Latinos as being a united group.

However, that idea is not exactly true.

While there is a strong sense of Latino pride for many Latinos, when it comes to being or feeling a sense of unity to others who are not of the same national background it seems non-existent. It is this sense of division among Latinos which has some Latino stars are suggesting that if we remove, Latinos could only benefit and progress forward as a united people.

Since becoming a superstar in her own right, Eva Longoria has used her fame earned by her stint as a Housewife on ABC’s Desperate Housewives into becoming a philanthropist to aid the Latino community within the country. And one way that Longoria has aided Latinos is through her very own foundation.

Since its establishment back in 2010, the intention of the Eva Longoria Foundation is to encourage and help Latinas across the country succeed through either educational and/or entrepreneurial pursuits. According to Longoria, the foundations mostly focuses on Latinas because she sees the growing demographic of Latinos in this country and believes that women in the community need more of a push because they “make the world go round.”

I grew up with a family of strong, accomplished, and educated women. I believe, as they say, that you can’t be what you don’t see, and since I saw a lot of smart women in my life, education being at the center, I just mimicked that behavior. There was never a question that I’d go to college. In fact, I was the last person in my family to get a master’s degree, so that tells you I’m actually the underachiever!

Although her foundation may be devoted to aiding the growth of Latinas, Longoria strongly feels that both women and men could both benefit in progressing upward if only we as a community come together to help one another out.

We have to support and lift each other up. Latinos have not historically been a culture that unites easily. We’re very factioned—you have your Mexican Americans, your Puerto Ricans, your Cuban Americans, your Central Americans—and sometimes we focus on the differences more than the commonalities.

And Longoria is not alone in this ideology. At the recent PaleyFest held this weekend, Gina Rodriguez the star of Jane The Virgin took part of a panel that discussed Latinos on Television and the actress gave advice to other Latino actors.

We need to unite,” said Rodriguez, suggesting one way to do so is by Latino actors opting to portray characters of different Latino nationalities beside their own to show this unity. “They see us as one community—we need to be one community. Let’s do that, use our power as Latinos, whatever culture you identify with and celebrate.

Being of Latino origin I have experienced, and seen, that there are fractions that exist within the Latino community. There are some Latinos, mostly Latinos of South America, who are being stereotyped or persecuted for being immigrants due to the country’s heated debate regarding how immigration—for some—harms the country or—for others—betters it. With this issue and others that are race-related and plagues the Latino community, the unifying of Latinos could aid in eliminating this issue.

Colombia Brazil & Dominican Republic Leading in Vanity Tourism

 

The universal idea of beauty has been definitely changed. Now, the most beautiful and most desired women are curvy. For many, the ideal woman is a combination of Jennifer Lopez, Sofia Vergara and Beyonce 


A new interest for female appearance places Latinas among the most attractive and desired women on the planet, which in turn fuels the existing cult of beauty and the women’s obsession with looking beautiful, young and fabulous.

It is no coincidence that countries such as Brazil, The Dominican Republic and Colombia have become the preferred destination for the so-called “beauty-tourism,” a new and innovative trend that has people traveling to other countries a part of promotional packages that include accommodation, medical expenses and cosmetic surgery ranging from breast augmentation to chin liposuction for a fraction of the cost they would have in the U.S.

The business of vanity or plastic surgery is a growing billion-dollar industry in Latin America, where professional success and social acceptance largely depend on physical appearance. This, despite the myriad of terrifying cases of deaths during surgery and of procedures performed in clinics operated by unscrupulous doctors or by people lacking proper credentials.

Back in the homelands, the social pressure some Latinas feel regarding their beauty drives even the ones with the most limited resources to resort to desperate methods that may include a subtle form of prostitution called “chapeo.”

According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, the most popular types of surgery are buttock augmentation, liposuction and breast augmentation. Botox continues to top the list of most common non-invasive cosmetic procedures worldwide.

A CULTURAL MATTER

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Latinas habitually worry about their appearance and the perception others may have of them, including their financial and social status. Looking good is equated to wellness and to doing well financially. We Latinas were raised admiring and wanting to be “just like” the leading actresses in telenovelas.

For most, going under the knife is considered more as psychological healing than a physical change. It boosts the self-esteem of women who were raised to be beautiful, even if that idea of beauty -which follows a European standard – fails to match the features of most of our countries’ population. It only takes a quick look at the most popular Hispanic TV networks or the famous Mexican telenovelas to see this.

From an early age, girls seem to covet having a full behind, voluptuous hips and stroke-inducing breasts, disregarding the effort required or even considering the risk of ending up being part of the terrifying statistics.

It is an emotional and physical balance. It is an mental attitude. It takes strongly believing that you accept yourself and love yourself exactly the way you are, and no letting advertising affect you and make no pursue and artificial idea of perfection.

We Latinas are more than our beauty. We are warriors who have fought for generations for the right to pursue our dreams in our countries of origin and in this new nation that opened its doors to us. And, of course, we also have curves.

 (Originally published in Latin Trends magazine)

NYPD, Long Island Police and Attorney General Sessions Declare War on MS-13

Attorney General Jeff Sessions plans to take on an the notorious street gang MS-13. He said he wants to “devastate” MS-13, who are thought to be blamed for the surge in murders in New York.

The most dangerous thing about the transnational gang is that they “engage in violence for sport,” declares Police Commissioner Timothy Sini. In a hearing for an alleged murder, for example, two MS-13 members reportedly laughed and smiled into the cameras.

MS-13 first formed in LA during the ’80s, more than 7,000 of its members arrested within the last 10 years. It is estimated that more than 10,000 MS-13 members are in existence in dozens states throughout the country

Police believe that the gang’s recent growth is due in part to the recruiting of vulnerable children who cross the border alone. These kids are given a sense of family, by the gangs, which is something they are craving.

Sini recognizes the importance of “weeding out those gang recruiters,” but also stresses the importance of implementing “community-based programs so that we deter and prevent gang recruitment.”

The commissioner is promising to deliver the abolishment of MS-13, asserting that “we are not going to tolerate crime in our communities.” We believe the eradication of MS-13 will take time, it is a war that law enforcement does not intend to lose.

Jesús Malverde The Patron Saint of Drug Cartels

Many know about the drug wars going on in Mexico, and how it’s crossing the border into states such as New Mexico and California. But what many may not know is that many drug traffickers – believe that 19th century folk hero, Jesús Malverde is the “patron saint” of drug trafficking to them. It’s believed that if a cartel member keeps a Malverde prayer card with them at all times, or a small statue/altar of him in the home, it would protect them from enemy cartels and law enforcement…even from death!

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As this trend is crossing over, and so closely related to narcotics cases, US prosecutors are using Malverde items, such as prayer cards and candles, as evidence, according to the New York Daily News.  Have the NYPD narcotics taking it as evidence? Not yet.

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And, yes, this icon has taken popularity within Mexican communities in NYC, visible in botanicas, with owners stocking their shelves with prayer cards, candles, and statues that stand up to two feet tall. While the Catholic Church doesn’t accept Malverde as a saint, the store owners see how the people have. Other than being popular among locals, Malverde has been mentioned in TV shows, movies, books and countless stories and articles.

But what’s the legend behind icon? Jesús Malverde is originally from the Mexican state of Sinaloa, located on the western coast of Mexico, and was known as an “El Rey de Sinaloa”, “angel of the poor”, “generous bandit”, amongst others. To the locals of Sinaloa, he’s earned a Robin Hood-type image. He was executed for his crimes by authorities May 3rd 1909.

New York’s Mom & Pop Businesses are Being Replaced by BIG Corporations

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Hey! Want to grab a bite to eat at the original 2nd Avenue Deli in the East Village?

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How about we grab some lunch at Manatus restaurant on Bleecker Street?

Then maybe grab something from Ralph’s Discount City up in TriBeca?

And why not stop by the great home of punk rock CBGB in the East Village, yeah?

Well, you kind of can’t anymore since these notable New York City landmarks are no longer around.

Considered local fixtures in the neighborhoods, familiar and popular mom-and-pop stores, diners, restaurants, and shops are slowly becoming extinct in the evolving city due to staggering rent hikes and a lackluster economy. Unable to withstand the hardship, many of these familiar shops are being replaced by big name corporations like Subway or Dunkin Donunts or banks like Chase and Capital One.

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In their photo book Store Front – The Disappearing Face of New York, photographers James T. and Karla L. Murray take readers on a visual tour of some of the familiar and irreplaceable store fronts that line street after street of New York City.

Choosing places that “look like they’ve been around forever” the duo has in a way allowed such locales to exist forever in photographic form. Organized by borough and then subdivided into neighborhoods, the photographic book poses as an encyclopedia of sorts that manages to preserves the now extinct shops that have become replaced by commercial businesses.

“The purpose of the photos in the before and after project is to clearly spell out and provide documentation of not only what storefronts have been lost but also what is often lacking in what replaces them,” said the photographers.

The book depicts the dramatic alteration in the appearance of many familiar local spots in New York City. From 2001 to 2007, the book contains a good decade of how scathing rental prices are forcing out mom-and-pop shops which are being replaced with chain stores belonging to commercial businesses.

The shop-owners frequently acknowledged that they were at the mercy of their landlords and the ever-increasing rents they charged,” and if the shop-owners could not meet the increasing rent, “big rent hikes meant that many small businesses closed to be replaced by chain stores or banks, which could afford the higher rent.

According to the book, Max Fish, a bar located on the Lower East Side is an example of being a victim to rising rent costs. The bar opened in 1989 and its rent was a mere $2,000 a month, however after a series of rent increases and being opened for a good 24 years the bar closed with a reported $16,000 rent cost. The rent was due to increase again if the bar remained opened.

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Until you place them side-by-side and really look at the two photos, you cannot get the true sense of loss,” explained the Murrays, discussing how powerful the images taken are when you show what was beside the what is.

The two also add, “the trend we noticed very early on while photographing the original stores was that if the shop-owner did not own the entire building, their business was already in jeopardy.

Mom-and-pop shops are not the only familiar local spots being replaced by commercial businesses. Late last year, 5 Pointz–5 Pointz: The Institute of Higher Burnin’ or the 5Pointz Aerosol Art Center–was an outdoor graffiti haven considered an art cultural center to many was white-washed—the numerous art pieces that were spray-painted on its wall was marked out with white paint—by the builders owners.

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The white-washing came after 5 Pointz owner and supporters lost am ongoing battle to remaining standing. The building is scheduled to be torn down and make way for new condos and business shops in its place.

While the book can be a bit grim showcasing the demise of familiar shops, shops that are either replaced by corporations or gutted to the group, the book also contains some hope.

Among some of the photos taken, the Murrays have included side-by-side photos of old shops being replaced not by large corporations but fellow and new mom-and-pop shops. These images show some hope that not all is being taken over by large commercial businesses but there are still regular folk with businesses of their own trying to make it in this ever changing world.

Amabell Rodriguez Feels Elevated & Accomplished @ Hostos

For Bronx native, multi-media artist Amabell Rodriguez, life has not always been easy. From both her parents passing, to losing money and being laid-off after the economic crash, there was a point, she reflected, in which she lost so much. “But not my life,” she affirms. Lucky for Amabell, she has a good support system and a relentless drive. “My mind is just wild with ideas ,” she said. “I implement what I think.” And after thinking about continuing her education, Rodriguez matriculated at Hostos Community College to complete her Associate’s degree. Amabell’s goal was to, “Come, conquer and then leave elevated and accomplished.” She graduated in 2012, having done just that.

 

Amabell

Tell us a little about your trajectory at Hostos College.
I worked in fashion for a while… things got crazy with the economy in 2008 and they let me go from the job that I was in for years. Then one day I received a letter that said something along the lines of ‘You can go back to school.’ At this point everything came to a halt and I said to myself ‘Wow, I really have to ground myself as an individual.’ And that’s how my re-education as an adult started. The thing that I love about Hostos, that a lot of people don’t understand, is that you could never underestimate small junior colleges. It was an incredible experience because if anyone ever doubted themselves the staff there won’t cut you down. They’re there to build you up and I felt like I was built up.

 

You got a minor in Digital Design. What did you major in and why?
Liberal arts. I took the cluster of behavioral sciences, because I felt that if I was going to be a teacher and I was going to be a mentor, I really needed to [understand] human behavior.

 

What contributions do you hope to make in the future?
If I can reach one child or individual of color and let them know their self-worth and what they’re capable of doing, if I can just reach one person then that’s my completion. My objective is to educate. That’s the contribution I want to make.

Ready, set go and jump start your future

So what’s your background? Where are you from?
Soy Boricua. My father from Guayama and my mother is from Río Piedras.

 

How do you maintain your roots?
I have my Taino natives: Bobby Gonzalez, Taino Ray. So to me, it’s to stay with my mentors who are constantly feeding me that knowledge and that heritage. I’m so inspired. It’s about straight up education with my Puerto Rican counterparts. I was functioning in a dark place. Now it’s about rediscovering myself.

 

A functioning dark place—what would you say to people who are in that space?
At the end of the day, what a person needs is a support system and if you don’t have that, or seek that out, you can fall through the cracks. You can feel like you’re drowning. But if somebody believes in you, seek the opportunity.

Visit Hostos

Article By Giovanna Acosta

The Revelance & Growth of Citizen Media

The term citizen media refers to forms of content produced by private citizens who are otherwise not professional journalists. Citizen journalism, participatory media and democratic media are related principles.

Citizen media is a term coined by Clemencia Rodriguez, who defined this concept as ‘the transformative processes they bring about within participants and their communities. Citizen media refers to the ways in which audiences can also become participants in the media using the different resources offered. In the modern age, new technologies have brought about different media technologies which became the ground for citizen participation.

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There are many forms of citizen-produced media including blogs, vlogs, podcasts, digital storytelling, community radio, participatory video and more, and may be distributed via television, radio, internet, email, movie theater, DVD and many other forms. Many organizations and institutions exist to facilitate the production of media by private citizens including, but not limited to, Public, educational, and government access (PEG) cable tv channels, Independent Media Centers and community technology centers.

Citizen media has bloomed with the advent of technological tools and systems that facilitate production and distribution of media. Of these technologies, none has advanced citizen media more than the Internet. With the birth of the Internet and into the 1990s, citizen media has responded to traditional mass media’s neglect of public interest and partisan portrayal of news and world events. Media produced by private citizens may be as factual, satirical, neutral or biased as any other form of media but has no political, social or corporate affiliation.

By 2007, the success of small, independent, private journalists began to rival corporate mass media in terms of audience and distribution. Citizen produced media has earned higher status and public credibility since the 2004 US Presidential elections and has since been widely replicated by corporate marketing and political campaigning. Traditional news outlets and commercial media giants have experienced declines in profit and revenue which can be directly attributed to the wider acceptance of citizen produced media as an official source of information.

Read more here…